换个小盘子真的有助于控制食量么？| BMC Journal
论文标题：Plate size and food consumption: a pre-registered experimental study in a general population sample
期刊：International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
作者：Daina Kosīte, Laura M. König et al.
餐具尺寸对进食量的影响一直以来尚未明确。大多数现有研究均使用了较小的、且不具代表性的样本，且未遵循随机对照试验的推荐程序，导致偏倚风险增加。发表在International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 的文章 Plate size and food consumption: a pre-registered experimental study in a general population sample是迄今为止第一项在开放科学平台上预先注册的研究。作者探索了食用自助餐时使用较大餐盘和较小餐盘对进食量的影响；还评估了之前未研究过的微观因素（ 如食物份量和进食速度）对进食量的影响。
没有明确证据表明两组的进食量存在差异：Cohen’s d = 0.07（95% CI：−0.27~0.41）。大餐盘组的平均进食量仅比小餐盘组多19.2（95% CI ：−76.5~115.0）kcal（即3%） [平均值 （标准差）：大餐盘组644.1（265.0）kcal vs. 小餐盘组624.9（292.3）kcal] 。个体特征未改变组间差异。除使用较大餐盘时会留有较多的剩余食物在盘子上之外，未发现微观因素对食进量有影响的证据。
There is considerable uncertainty regarding the impact of tableware size on food consumption. Most existing studies have used small and unrepresentative samples and have not followed recommended procedures for randomised controlled trials, leading to increased risk of bias. In the first pre-registered study to date, we examined the impact on consumption of using larger versus smaller plates for self-served food. We also assessed impact on the underlying meal micro-structure, such as number of servings and eating rate, which has not previously been studied.
The setting was a purpose-built naturalistic eating behaviour laboratory. A general population sample of 134 adult participants (aged 18–61 years) was randomly allocated to one of two groups varying in the size of plate used for self-serving lunch: large or small. The primary outcome was amount of food energy (kcal) consumed during a meal. Additionally, we assessed impact on meal micro-structure, and examined potential modifying effects of executive function, socio-economic position, and sensitivity to perceptual cues.
There was no clear evidence of a difference in consumption between the two groups: Cohen’s d = 0.07 (95% CI [− 0.27, 0.41]), with participants in the large plate group consuming on average 19.2 (95% CI [− 76.5, 115.0]) more calories (3%) compared to the small plate group (large: mean (SD) = 644.1 (265.0) kcal, versus small: 624.9 (292.3) kcal). The difference between the groups was not modified by individual characteristics. There was no evidence of impact on meal micro-structure, with the exception of more food being left on the plate when larger plates were used.
This study suggests that previous meta-analyses of a low-quality body of evidence may have considerably overestimated the effects of plate size on consumption. However, the possibility of a clinically significant effect – in either direction – cannot be excluded. Well-conducted trials of tableware size in real-world field settings are now needed to determine whether changing the size of tableware has potential to contribute to efforts to reduce consumption at population-level.